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3 Quarks Daily
80 Beats (Andrew Moseman, Brett Israel)
A BCer in Toronto (Jeff Jedras)
Acts of Minor Treason (Andrew Barton)
Andart (Anders Sandberg)
Alpha Sources (Claus Vistesen)
Apostrophen ('Nathan Smith)
Arnold Zwicky's Blog
Aufbau Ost (Melanie K.)
Bad Astronomy (Phil Plait)
Beyond the Beyond (Bruce Sterling)
Bonoboland (Edward Hugh)
Bow. James Bow.
Broadside Blog (Caitlin Kelly)
A (Budding) Sociologist's Commonplace Book (Dan Hirschman)
Gerry Canavan's blog
Castrovalva (Richard R.)
Centauri Dreams (Paul Gilster)
Charlie's Diary (Charlie Stross)
City of Brass (Aziz Poonawalla)
Crooked Timber
The Dragon's Gaze (William Baird)
The Dragon's Tales (William Baird)
Dangerous Minds
Everyday Sociology Blog
False Positives (Ian Irving)
Far Outliers (Joel)
The Fifteenth (Steve Roby)
A Fistful of Euros
GeoCurrents (Martin Lewis)
Global Sociology
The Great Grey Bridge, Honourary Canadian (Philip Turner)
Halfway Down the Danube (Douglas Muir et al.)
Hunting Monsters and inuit bikini scarlet carwash
In Media Res (Russell Arben Fox)
Inkless Wells (Paul Wells)
Intuitionistically Uncertain (Michel)
Itching for Eestimaa (Guistino)
Ivor Tossell on the Web
Jim's Occasional Journal of Sorts (Jim Rittenhouse)
Joe.My.God (Joe)
Johnny Pez's blog
Karl Schroeder's blog
Kieran Healy's Weblog
Language Hat
Language Log (Mark Liberman et al.)
Languages of the World (Asya Pereltsvaig)
Lawyers, Guns, and Money
LRB Blog (London Review of Books)
The Map Room (Jonathan Crowe)
Marginal Revolution (Tyler Cowen)
Marginalia (Peteris Cedrins)
Mark Simpson
Maximos' Blog (Russell Darnley)
More Words, Deeper Hole (James Nicoll)
The Naked Anthropologist (Laura Agustín)
New APPS blog (group blog)
No Moods, Ads or Cutesy Fucking Icons (Re-reloaded) (Peter Watts)
The Numerati (Stephen Baker)
NYRB Daily (New York Review of Books)
Open the Future (Jamais Cascio)
Otto's Random Thoughts (J. Otto Pohl)
The Pagan Prattle (Feòrag)
Passing Strangeness (Paul Drye)
patrickcain.ca (Patrick Cain)
Personal Reflections (Jim Belshaw)
Photosapience Daily (Jerrold)
Pollotencheg (Ukrainian demography blog)
The Power and the Money (Noel Maurer)
Progressive Download (John Farrell)
Registan (group blog)
Rev Rachel Rambles (Rachel Kessler)
The Rose and Phoenix Inn (Victoria Goddard)
Russian Demographic Live Journal (Ba-ldei Aga)
A Rusty Little Box (Rebecca)
Savage Minds
The Search (Douglas Todd)
Shadow, Light and Colour (Elizabeth Beattie)
Sharp Blue (Richard Baker)
The Signal
Some Ramblings from Mr. Gueguen
Steve Munro
Strange Maps
Sublime Oblivion (Anatoly Karlin)
Supernova Condensate
Tall Penguin
Technosociology (Zeynep Tufekci)
Towleroad (Andy Towle)
Understanding Society (Daniel Little)
Volokh Conspiracy
Wasatch Economics (Scott Peterson)
Wave Without A Shore (C.J. Cherryh)
The Way the Future Blogs (Frederik Pohl)
Whatever (John Scalzi)
Window on Eurasia (Paul Goble)
The Yorkshire Ranter (Alex Harrowell)
Zero Geography (Mark Graham)

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Monday, January 16th, 2017
4:01 pm - [PHOTO] Looking south in afternoon sun, Yonge-Eglinton Centre
Looking south in afternoon sun, Yonge-Eglinton Centre #toronto #skyline #yongeandeglinton #yongeeglintoncentre

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12:07 pm - [PHOTO] Muée de beaux-arts de Montréal

Untitled (Altarpiece)

Self-portrait, 1983

Self-portrait, 1988

Sam Wagstaff, around 1972

Yoko Ono, 1988

Richard Gere, 1982

Patti Smith, 1975

Patti Smith, Horses (1975)

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11:06 am - [PHOTO] L'occasionelle of Montréal vs the Metropass of Toronto
L"occasionelle vs Metropass #toronto #montreal #montréal #stm #ttc #loccasionelle #metropass

I've just come back from a very enjoyable long weekend in Montréal. I first got the idea to head east down the MacDonald-Cartier Highway when I heard that the new touring Robert Mapplethorpe exhibit, Focus : Perfection, would be making a visit to the Musée des beaux-arts. Once I recognized that it had been far too many years since I had last been in the city, I had more impetus to go. When I realized that the weekend before the exhibit closed contained my birthday (the 14th), I realized that I had to go. So, I did. I will be sharing a lot of the photos that I took here in the next weeks.

One thing I was interested in doing was comparing the transit services offered by the Société de Transport de Montréal with those of the Toronto Transit Commission. The two transport networks are generally comparable but the STM has an edge in a few areas. The rubber wheels on the subway trains of Montréal do save passengers' ears from the occasional screech of metal against metal that's background noise for Torontonian passengers, and the level of investment put into making Métro stations not just functional but attractive is something rarely found in Toronto.

The one STM artifact that I was most taken by was not the trains and not the stations, but L'occasionelle. This RFID-equipped smart card, printed on durable cardstock, is a revelation for someone used to TTC Metropasses with their dumb magnetic stripes and Presto cards which keeping failing to work. For just $C 18, I was able to buy a card that let me travel everywhere within reach of the STM for a three day period. It's really nice. Perhaps Toronto can try to emulate Montréal on this?

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Friday, January 13th, 2017
8:44 am - [PHOTO] "Uniqlo Meets Toronto"
"Uniqlo Meets Toronto" #toronto #maps #eatoncentre #uniqlo

On one of the walls of the new Uniqlo store in Toronto's Eaton Centre is a map of the city of Toronto, showing the locations of the two Uniqlo stores and Uniqlo's local partners like the Drake General Store in relation to a stylized map of major streets and landmarks.

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Thursday, January 12th, 2017
11:16 pm - [MUSIC] Patsy Gallant, "From New York to L.A."
Patsy Gallant is a Canadian singer whose reputation in English Canada is based entirely on her 1976 single "From New York to L.A."

Her musical career is more storied than this, with Gallant carving out a career in music and theatre in Québec and France, largely unknown to an Anglophone audience outside of chance events like Gallant's 2013 performance at Pride in Toronto. In this Gallant, a Francophone born in small bilingual town of Campbellton in New Brunswick, shares in a common experience of French Canadians in being overlooked.

What interests me most about the song is not the music but rather the deeply ambivalent lyrics. "From New York to L.A." opens with the singer dismissing her love as less important than stardom.

In my mind there's a face
On my lips there's a name
In my life there's no place
For the man that I love
Cause I'm livin' my life
Just to sing and be free

Later, we hear the singer tell of a much darker world, one filled with sleaze and death and one where even her love may not have been all that.

The city lights are often blurred
By stories we've already heard
Booze and drugs now break my head
Cause all the shining stars are dead

I sometimes close my tired eyes
Look at myself, be hypnotized
Findin' a reason of lovin' you
The man I thought was meant for me
But were you really meant for me?

Honestly, I don't think that the song does a very good job of handling these potentially interesting themes. The consistently upbeat music contrasts poorly with the much darker lyrics at the end. This song's importance in Canadian pop music aside--one of Canada's first, and biggest, disco hits--I wonder if it could gone through another draft.

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8:38 pm - [LINK] "OUTtv joins the Netflix generation"
Niko Bell's Daily Xtra article makes me wonder whether I should, at long last, get a Google Chromecast or other like dongle and start watching television, again, after a lapse of a decade and a half.

Canadian LGBT cable channel OUTtv will shift its focus to a Netflix-style online subscription service, after being bought by a Vancouver investment firm.

The cable channel will remain in place until at least 2020, says incoming CEO Brad Danks, but the company’s main asset will become OUTtvGo, a $4-a-month streaming site, available for now only in Canada.

“It’s a transformation that needs to happen,” Danks says, citing a sagging cable broadcasting market and a new generation of customers accustomed to Netflix and YouTube. “We felt the timing was right.”

Vancouver’s Stern Partners, the owners of the Winnipeg Free Press among diverse other holdings, won permission from the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) to buy a majority stake in OUTtv at the end of December 2016. OUTtv’s previous owner and CEO — and husband of former BC NDP leader Joy MacPhail — James Shavick will stay on as a board member.

Danks says OUTtvGo will include much of the same programming as the cable channel, including every available season of OUTtv’s most popular offering, RuPaul’s Drag Race. Danks also says he hopes the online library will grow to include more shows for young people, lesbians and other groups who were underserved by the cable channel.

OUTtvGo will not deliver adult content; Danks says there’s no point competing with the vast array of adult videos online, and a porn-free collection will make it easier to work with tech partners such as Apple TV and mobile app stores.

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8:34 pm - [URBAN NOTE] "Cities need to heed signals from Trudeau government"
Spacing Toronto's John Lorinc argues that a leaked federal government report predicting very high levels of debt in decades to come can, from the perspective of cities, best be read as a warning that hoped-for federal funding in infrastructure is not coming.

The little explosion of sweaty news last week about an apparently buried federal report predicting “decades” of gigantic deficits added just a bit more fuel to the fire crackling around Justin Trudeau’s feet. The key take away was that net debt levels, driven by anemic GDP growth and an aging population, will crest at $1.55 trillion by the 2050s.

The short-hand media analysis focused more on that great big scary number than the complex political dynamic this analysis will set in motion.

I’m not talking about the short-term melodrama. The report obviously feeds into the emerging narrative of the Trudeau government as profligate and beholden to wealthy lobbying interests while increasingly isolated in a world that’s become fixated on the brain-stem appeal of nativist politics. It also gives Kevin O’Leary and the rest of the Conservative leadership pugilists a new talking point, allowing them to change the channel away from Kellie Leitch’s tone-deaf immigrant bashing.

Rather, when I scanned at this report, which is built on the sturdy and seemingly apolitical timber of long-term demographic and productivity analysis, two points struck me:

One, while the media reports presented the document as something the government released as quietly as a church mouse skittering around on Christmas eve, the language in the document bears the unmistakable signs of a political edit: “As this demographic transition unfolds,” the unnamed Department of Finance author states at one point, “the Government will continue to take smart decisions and make sound investments to build Canada’s economy of the future and create an economy that works for the middle class [emphasis added].”

These, clearly, are not the words of some nerdy government economist.

So? I’d argue this document was absolutely intended to be discovered, thus subtly sending the signal that Ottawa is keeping a watchful eye trained on long-term economic and spending trends.

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6:33 pm - [URBAN NOTE] "LRT construction leaves Eglinton businesses worried about future"
Alicja Siekierska at the Toronto Star looks at the concerns of businesses on Eglinton Avenue about disruption to their affairs by construction of a light rail route. This sounds a lot like what we heard about St. Clair during streetcar construction there.

Vendors along Eglinton Ave. say their businesses are paying the price for construction of the Crosstown LRT.

“The whole area is devastated and desecrated,” said Viive Tork, the owner of VII Designs and Gifts on Eglinton Ave. near Chaplin Cres., where one of the stations will be located.

“We’ve been forced into a very precarious situation.”

Maureen Sirois, chair of the Eglinton Way Business Improvement Area, said the area is grappling with many issues – a lack of parking, drastically reduced foot traffic, various obstructions – since the construction of the stations began. The entire project will be complete in 2021.

“Every single business understands that we must build a subway, but it shouldn’t be done on the backs of small businesses,” Sirois said.

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6:31 pm - [URBAN NOTE] "Scarborough subway report delayed . . . again"
The Toronto Star's Ben Spurr lets his readers know the latest development in mass transit in Scarborough, something that frankly sounds quite a lot like a joke at this point. Will anyone ever decide on anything?

A highly anticipated report on the Scarborough subway extension has been delayed for a second time, a development that could add to the cost of the controversial one-stop transit project.

The study of the preferred route of the extension was supposed to be on the agenda for next week’s meeting of Mayor John Tory’s executive committee. The agenda is scheduled to be published Thursday, but a city spokesperson confirmed to the Star that the report won’t be on it.

“TTC and city staff are finalizing analysis in order to bring forward a comprehensive report on the Scarborough Subway Extension later in (the first quarter of 2017) to ensure appropriate consultation and collaboration across city divisions, TTC and the province,” Wynna Brown wrote in an email.

She said she couldn’t say for certain when the report will be ready and didn’t provide any details about why it has been delayed.

But it will include a recommended alignment for the subway extension’s route between Kennedy Station and the Scarborough Town Centre, an updated cost estimate, and advice to council on a procurement strategy.

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6:28 pm - [ISL] "Whose emails were deleted? P.E.I. opposition finally has an answer"
CBC News' Kerry Campbell shares news from the slowly-unfolding online gambling scandal, revealing the identities of the three politicians whose E-mails went mysteriously missing.

Chris LeClair. Melissa MacEachern. Rory Beck.

Those are the three names the Official Opposition was searching for when members asked government over and over during the fall sitting of the legislature — "whose emails were deleted?"

It wasn't anyone from the MacLauchlan government that provided the answers today however. It was Auditor General Jane MacAdam.

Her investigation into the province's failed e-gaming plan included a special section on government records management, which concluded safeguards to protect records were not being followed, thus, "government records can easily be destroyed."

In particular, MacAdam said in her report some emails from key players in the e-gaming initiative which should have been provided to her, were not.

Today MacAdam told the province's Standing Committee on Public Accounts those emails were from three accounts: those of LeClair, former chief of staff to Robert Ghiz; MacEachern, former deputy minister of innovation and also tourism and culture; and Beck, who passed away in 2012 while serving as clerk of executive council.

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6:26 pm - [ISL] "Charlottetown Airport sets new record for passenger traffic in 2016"
The Guardian of Charlottetown reports on the rapid growth of traffic at Charlottetown Airport, surely a good sign for the airport as for the larger tourism-dependent economy.

The number of passengers who went through the Charlottetown Airport in 2016 increased by 12 per cent over the previous year.

The airport authority says the 354,234 people through the terminals last year set a new passenger traffic record, which was previously set in 2014 with 317,827 passengers.

Charlottetown Airport Authority CEO Doug Newson said it’s the first time the airport’s passenger numbers surpassed 350,000.

[. . .]

Newson said increased services to Toronto by Air Canada Rouge and WestJet in 2016 contributed to the record numbers. Air Canada also extended its popular summer flight from Ottawa to operate for six months last year.

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6:23 pm - [ISL] "P.E.I. Mi'kmaq chiefs object sale of Mill River to Blue Jays founder"
The Guardian of Charlottetown reports on the potential for a land claim lawsuit on Prince Edward Island, involving the sale of resort property in the west of the province on land traditionally significant to the Mi'kmaq.

The Mi’kmaq chiefs in P.E.I. are considering legal action to prevent the sale of the Mill River golf course and provincial park to one of the founders of the Toronto Blue Jays, which was announced earlier today.

The chiefs of the Abegweit and Lennox Island First Nations issued a joint news release Thursday, saying they are “shocked and thoroughly disappointed” to learn of the sale of the Crown land to Don McDougall.

They have repeatedly told the province, both verbally and through formal correspondence, of their objection to the deal that will see over 400 acres of provincial Crown land sold to McDougall.

On several occasions the Mi’kmaq governments have told the province this sale would impact negatively on the constitutionally protected Aboriginal and treaty rights of the Mi’kmaq people, the chiefs state in their release.

They say they are now considering legal action to stop the deal from going through.

“We will have to take all steps necessary to protect the Aboriginal and Treaty rights of the Mi’kmaq people and will be forced to examine litigation, including injunctive relief to prevent the sale,” said Abegweit Chief Brian Francis.

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6:19 pm - [ISL] "White wine and canola oil: N.L.'s budding crop opportunities"
CBC News' Cherie Wheeler reports from western Newfoundland, where an experiment in growing canola and wine grapes in this historically non-agricultural province has yielded success.

Thanks to the success of some unconventional crops grown last summer, western Newfoundland might soon add canola and grapes to its list of agricultural products.

Working with independent farmers, the provincial Department of Fisheries, Forestry and Agrifoods experimented with the two crops that aren't traditionally grown in the province.

The hope was those first-time crops could sow the seeds for new farming industries.

While canola farming is big business in the prairies, it's unheard of in Newfoundland and Labrador.

"Yes, we're a lot different from Saskatchewan, but perhaps we might have a little better conditions than Iceland or northern Norway," said Kavanagh, the province's alternative feed co-ordinator.

[. . .]

It turns out she was right. Planting 12 hectares on private farmland on the island's west coast, in Pasadena, Kanvanagh said the yield was ¾ of a metric tonne per acre — which is on par with the rest of Atlantic Canada.

[. . .]

Like canola, the idea to grow grapes in Newfoundland was germinated in another province.

"There was a huge opportunity for grapes [in Nova Scotia]," says Newfoundland and Labrador's fruit-crop development officer Karen Kennedy. "And there was no one commercially growing grapes here."

Buoyed by stories of backyard gardeners growing grapes, Kennedy planted the first experimental vines four years ago in Humber Village, a small community in Humber Valley, as well as in Brooklyn, on the Bonavista Peninsula.

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1:25 pm - [BLOG] Some Thursday links

  • 'Apostrophen's 'Nathan Smith describes his writing projects for this year.

  • The Dragon's Gaze links to a paper examining exomoon formation.

  • The LRB Blog worries about Trump's hold on the button.

  • The NYRB Daily looks at Rex Tillerson, an oil company diplomat to autocrats.

  • Personal Reflections' Jim Belshaw shares the rediscovered mid-19th century painting by Legros, L'Angelus.</i>
  • Towleroad looks at the Russian tradition of kompromat, the gathering of compromising information for blackmail.

  • Transit Toronto notes that TTC surveying in Scarborough is beginning.

  • Understanding Society looks at path dependency in the formation of academic disciplines.

  • Window on Eurasia looks at Russian tensions regarding gastarbeiter migration and suggests Russia is set to actively sponsor separatism across the former Soviet Union.

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9:30 am - [PHOTO] MI'kmaq quillwork, Royal Ontario Museum
Mi&quot;kmaq quillwork, Royal Ontario Museum

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Wednesday, January 11th, 2017
9:58 pm - [ISL] On PEI ranking among the best places to visit in the world, according to CNN
CBC Prince Edward Island was among the news sources to note that Prince Edward Island was listed first in CNN's list of the top places to go this year.

With Canada celebrating its 150th birthday in 2017, there's no finer excuse to head to the birthplace of the nation, Prince Edward Island.

Travelers are falling in love with the island's rocky red shores and picturesque fishing villages all over again thanks to several new TV and movie productions of the Lucy Maud Montgomery classic, "Anne of Green Gables."

The best way to explore the island's capital, Charlottetown, is on foot.

Many of the highlights are in the historic downtown core including the Charlottetown Province House -- the famed government building where the Charlottetown Conference took place in 1864. It was here that a small group of elected officials gathered to discuss the possibility of joining the region's independent provinces to create a singular nation.

Three years later, Canada's Constitution Act was passed by British Parliament and a new country was born.
Upscale restaurants have multiplied on the island in the last 10 years, taking advantage of the excellent local produce.

But there's nothing quite like an old fashioned lobster supper -- a massive gathering traditionally held in a cavernous community hall that ends with a table full of empty shells and butter-coated fingers.

Note that it did not rank #1, but instead was just the first entry. This is a distinction, I think, some people have passed over.

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2:26 pm - [LINK] "California Floods Its Fields to Keep Its Cities From Flooding"
Wired's Nick Stockton reports from Claifornia in the time of flooding, looking at how its water management authorities are preventing the state capital from getting overwhelmed by water so soon after the devastation of drought.

To see how close California is to being drowned by its recent winter storms, just look to the small crowd of spectators and TV newscasters gathered yesterday on the northwest side of the state capital hoping to watch state water managers open the gates of the Sacramento Weir. The weir, something between a dam and a levee, lets dangerously high water spill over its top into a long, narrow, floodplain filled with rice paddies, grain fields, and other row crops.

Californians pay attention to the weir for three reasons. One: People here are obsessed with water. Two: The thing hasn’t been opened in a decade. Three: Opening the 100-year old piece of infrastructure is a spectacle, requiring a person wielding a long, hooked pole to manually unlatch each of its 48 wooden floodgates. The crowd slept through that spectacle; state workers opened the weir in the dark, early this morning. They can still catch the sight of water thundering over the weir and into the Yolo Bypass, flooding the plain to protect the city of Sacramento.

From 1850 on, Sacramento has flooded numerous times. This was why, in 1916, the city built the Sacramento Weir to protect itself. In the following decades, the state added five more upstream weirs, and several additional spillways. Besides the Sacramento Weir, all of these are automatic failsafes: If the river reaches a certain height, it spills over a weir into the adjoining bypass.

But because the Sacramento Weir’s gates must be manually opened, they must be manually closed, too. And that cannot be done until the water recedes below the weir gate levels. “Once you open them, you’re making a decision that you’re going to stick with,” says Michael Anderson, state climatologist for the California Department of Water Resources. And when that decision happens, Yolo Bypass becomes an inland sea. Birds flock in, and fish swim below.

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2:22 pm - [LINK] "China Plans To Land Probes on Far Side of Moon, Mars by 2020"
This news comes from the end of 2016, but it's still quite good. May China continue to progress in space travel, for the benefit of us all.

China vowed Tuesday to speed up the development of its space industry as it set out its plans to become the first country to soft land a probe on the far side of the moon, around 2018, and launch its first Mars probe by 2020.

"To explore the vast cosmos, develop the space industry and build China into a space power is a dream we pursue unremittingly," read a white paper setting out the country's space strategy for the next five years. It says China aims to use space for peaceful purposes and to guarantee national security, and to carry out cutting edge scientific research.

The white paper released by the information office of China's Cabinet points to the growing ambitions of China's already rapidly advancing space program. Although the white paper doesn't mention it, China's eventual goal is the symbolic feat of landing an astronaut on the moon.

While Russia and the United States have more experience in manned space travel, China's military-backed program has made steady progress in a comparatively short time.

Since China conducted its first crewed space mission in 2003, it has staged a spacewalk and landed a rover on the moon in 2013 -- the first time humans had soft landed anything on the moon since the 1970s.

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11:33 am - [LINK] "Chrystia Freeland: Trudeau's first star candidate becomes his brand ambassador"
CBC News' Aaron Wherry looks at the ascent of Chrystia Freeland, a Liberal star candidate in the last election, to the position of Canadian foreign affairs minister.

Chrystia Freeland, the new foreign affairs minister, wasn't quite the first Justin Trudeau Liberal — Yvonne Jones was elected in a byelection a month after he became party leader — but she was his first star candidate, wooed by Trudeau and his advisers to hold the Liberal bastion of Toronto-Centre.

Her turn to politics in 2013 came on the heels of her acclaimed book, Plutocrats: The Rise of the New Global Super-Rich and the Fall of Everyone Else, and her reporting on economic inequality converged with Trudeau's increasing focus on the middle class.

Her curriculum vitae reads like the model of a certain Liberal ideal: a worldly, Harvard-educated journalist who has worked in Moscow and New York, writing and talking about international politics and global finance while in the employ of some of the most revered companies in international media. (Her familial roots in Peace River, Alta., help to take some of the edge off her cosmopolitan bona fides.)

Before she was even elected, she was made a co-chair of the economic advisory council of MPs and wonks that would inform the Liberal platform. Immediately upon arriving in Ottawa, she became a prominent voice on Russian interference in Ukraine, her ancestral homeland.

During 14 months as the minister of international trade, she completed a deal with the European Union — famously emoting in public at one point during negotiations and later hugging her Conservative predecessor in the Commons — and apparently worked to improve her French.

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11:30 am - [URBAN NOTE] "A guide to the hidden spaces of the TTC"
blogTO's Derek Flack takes a look at some hidden spaces on the TTC network, starting with infamous Lower Bay station.

Lower Bay Station (or, as the TTC refers to it, Bay Lower) is surely the best known of Toronto's hidden underground spaces. The ghost subway station was in service briefly in 1966 when the TTC tried its interlining system, which turned the city's two subway routes into three.

One platform serviced the Bloor-Danforth Route, while the other was a stop on the Danforth-University-Yonge Route. The experiment failed for a number of reasons, and the lower platform was promptly decommissioned.

It now serves as an area for training exercises and film shoots, though it has also been opened to the public for events like Nuit Blanche in the past.

Lower Bay isn't the only ghost station on the TTC, though. Underneath Queen Station, there's the shell of a streetcar subway station that would likely have taken the name City Hall, but is now typically referred to as Lower Queen or Queen Lower.

It was partially built in anticipation of Queen Street transit line that was never built.

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